UMLANDO: Iminyaka Emihlanu Kwelakithi [1879-1884]

ucwaningo olusaqhubekayo
luqhutshwa nguBheni wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini
2005

Okuqukethwe

1. AmaNgisi kweleNkosi uCetshwayo (eSandlwana: 22 Masingana 1879)
2. AmaNgisi namashifu kweleNkosi uCetshwayo (1879-1883)
3. AmaNgisi noZibhebhu – uSuthu noMandlakazi (Masingana – Ndasa 1883)
4. AmaNgisi noZibhebhu – uMandlakazi eMsebe nasoNdini (Ndasa – Ntulikazi 1883)
5. UMandlakazi namaNgisi namaBhunu kweleNkosi uCetshwayo (1883 – 1884)
6. Ukukhothama kweNkosi uCetshwayo (8 Nhlolanja 1884)
7. AmaNgisi noZibhebhu namaBhunu uZulu ezilile (8 Nhlolanja – 5 Nhlangulana 1884)
8. USuthu lunqoba amaNgisi kwelaseNkandla noSokwetshatha kwesakwaMbonambi
9. AmaNgisi namashifu namasotsha kwelaseNkandla (Nhlaba – Nhlangulana 1884)
10. USuthu lunqoba uMandlakazi empini yaseTshaneni (5 Nhlangulana 1884)

AMANGISI KWELENKOSI UCETSHWAYO (eSandlwana: 22 Masingana 1879)

Ukuhlaselwa kombuso wakwaZulu, uhlaselwa ngamabutho amaNgisi ekuqaleni konyaka wenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalombili namashumi ayisikhombisa nesishiyagalolunye (22 Masingana 1879) eSandlwana, kwaphetha ngokunqotshwa kwamaNgisi, ehlulwa; kwase kulandelwa uchungechunge lwezimpi ezinsukwini nasezinyangeni ezilandelayo eShiyane (Rorke’s Drift), eNkambule, … oLundi, lapho amaNgisi ayeselekelelwa ngamaningi amabutho ayekade ehamba ewaqoqa kulo lonke izwe nayesewalande phesheya, wagcina enqotshiwe uZulu oLundi (14 Ntulikazi 1879). AmaNgisi nabelekeleli bawo bagibele amahhashi, badubula ngezibhamu nosondonzima bombayimbayi abaholwa ngezinqola; amabutho kaZulu ashaya phansi ngonyawo, aphethe umkhonto nehawu-nje kuphela.

AMANGISI NAMASHIFU KWELENKOSI UCETSHWAYO (1879-1883)

INkosi uCetshwayo ayibopha amaNgisi (28 Ncwaba 1879), ayithumba, ayithwala ayoyivalela ekudingisweni eKibhithawini; le ngxenye yezwe engenhla koThukela ayengakayifaki phansi kombuso wawo waseNatali, ayidabula ayenza izifunda eziyishumi nantathu (13), naleso naleso asibekela ababezomkhokhela, ababhekele sona, ambiza ngokuthi ngushifu (chief), osekunguyena ayesezolibusa ngaye emva kokunqoba kwawo oLundi nokwethula iNkosi esihlalweni. Umbuso wamaNgisi wawabeka, abayishumi nanthathu (13) lawo mashifu kulezo zifunda enhla noThukela.
Omunye wala mashifu kwakuyiNgisi elalidume ngobuzingeli – uJohn Dunn, omunye wayengowasemizini yabeSuthu, abaTlokwa, eyayakhe esigodini sakwaNobamba – uHlubi kaMotha wakwaMlifi (Molefe), omunye kunguZibhebhu kaMaphitha kaSonjica wakwaMandlakazi kanye noHhamu kaNzibe wakwaNgenetsheni. Nakulana ayisishiyagalolunye amanye kwakunabantu-nje ababengabaluleke ngakutheni emphakathini noma abanye babo babekade beyizethenjwa zeNkosi uCetshwayo; umbuso wamaNgisi wawubabeke wethembe ukuthi bayokhuthalela ukubambelela ezikhundlaneni abazinikiwe, bazehlukanise kucace nombuso welakubo osunqotshiwe.

UZibhebhu wakwaMandlakazi noHhamu wakwaNgenetsheni bathi beqeda ukubekwa ezikhundleni ezintsha, basiqinisa isandla ekugciwazeni nasekucindezeleni ababesabambelele ekwaziseni umbuso wakwaZulu. Kwasuka abanumzane beholwa nguMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande kanye noMntwana uShingana kaMpande bayokhononda kubaphathi bombuso wamaNgisi eMgungundlovu (ngoNhlaba 1880), befuna kubuyiswe iNkosi ekudingisweni, baphindela futhi (ngoMbasa 1882), akwasiza lutho-nje. AmaNgisi agcizelela embizweni yaseNhlazatshe (31 Ncwaba 1881) ukuthi awakuyiziguqula izinqumo zawo.

UHhamu wakwaNgenetsheni wahlasela aBaQulusi nabaseMphangisweni (ngoMandulo 1881) – ababaziwa ngokwazisa nokubambelela kwabo embusweni wakubo kwaZulu – wabaxosha bewusa uBivane, wabaweza uPhongolo. Wathi uMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande ehloma, ephuthuma ukuyokwelekelela abaQulusi nabaseMphangisweni, ephelekezelwa nguMnyamana kaNgqengelele wakwaButhelezi, wahloma noZibhebhu kaMaphitha wakwaMandlakazi, efuna ukwelekelela uHhamu. Kwahlehlelwana.

INkosi uCetshwayo yagcina iphumelele emizamweni yayo yokuthi idedelwe, yedlulele eNgilandi (ngoNcwaba 1882), iyozethulela mathupha kubabusi bakhona – ababeholwa yiNdlovukazi yabo uVitoli (Queen Victoria) – ukukhononda kwayo iNkosi uCetshwayo ngobudlova nangengcindezelo ngabombuso wamaNgisi baseMgungundlovu naseKibhithawini. Ekubuyeni kwayo eNgilandi, wayivumela-ke umbuso wamaNgisi iNkosi ukuthi iphindele kwelakwaZulu (10 Masingana 1883); isihlalo sobukhosi wenqaba waphetha umbuso wamaNgisi ukusibuyisa.

Kulezi zifunda zamashifu eziyishumi nantathu (13) umbuso wamaNgisi wakhomba esinye owavumela iNkosi ukuthi izinze khona, ngezansi kwesasesinwetshiwe, sanikwa uZibhebhu; ezansi kwaso – phakathi koThukela noMhlathuze – kunesasinikwe uDunn nesasinikwe uHlubi – esigudle uMzinyathi neNcome -, lapho-ke kwasekubekwe khona oNdabazabantu bamaNgisi, kukhuthazwa abafisa ukuphuma esifundeni esasishiyelwe iNkosi uCetshwayo ukuthi bathuthele khona – „ezabelweni“.

Isiza sayo esisha iNkosi yasigxumeka phezu kweMfolozi-eMhlophe kwelaseMahlabathini, yasiqamba ngokuthi kusoNdini, ivuselela inxiwa lasoLundi elalikade libhidlizwe ngamabutho ombuso wamaNgisi (4 Ntulikazi 1879).

AMANGISI NOZIBHEBHU – USUTHU NOMANDLAKAZI (Masingana-Ndasa 1883)

Kwabe ayibuyile iNkosi uCetshwayo ekudingisweni (10 Masingana 1883), sasuka isidumo: ABaQulusi bahloma, bahlasela uHhamu kwaNgenetsheni (25-29 Masingana 1883), abaseMaNgweni phezu koMhlathuze beqa iMfolozi-eMhlophe bayohlasela uMfanawendlela kaThanga kaManzini wakwaZungu kwelaseMahlabathini (31 Masingana 1883). Kwasuka amaviyo amathathu oSuthu, esuka oNdini, ahlangabezana nasuka kwaMpukunyoni kwesikaSomkhele kaMalanda, kwawelwiswana uHluhluwe, kwayohlaselwa uZibhebhu kwaMandlakazi (5 Nhlolanja 1883); kwabuye kwasuka uSuthu oNdini lwaphinde lwayoxozomisa uMfanawendlela (13 Nhlolanja 1883). EBaQulusini kwabheduka udlame, kuthungathwa ababekade sebahlamuka, bahambisana noHhamu; bahloma abakwaNgenetsheni bayoziphindiselela eBaQulusini, babhekana noSuthu olwaluholwa nguMkhosana kaSangqana wakwaZungu (10-17 Ndasa 1883).
UZibhebhu wawahlomisa aviva amabutho akhe akwaMandlakazi, athungatha exosha uSuthu kulo lonke elaselinikwe yena ngumbuso wamaNgisi; uSuthu nemizi yalo yonke lwagcina selunqwabelene esifundeni sikaMnyamana wakwaButhelezi phezu kweSikhwebezi. Amanxiwa nemfuyo namasimu namadlelo kwasala bephangelana ngakho abakwaMandlakazi. USuthu kwakuyizinsizwa ezazibambelele ekuyikhonzeni iNkosi uCetshwayo nasekwaziseni umbuso wakwelakubo – zikanye nabakubo.

Lezi zinsizwa zoSuthu zazibalelwa ezinkulungwaneni ezinhlanu (5 000), zivivinywe nguMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande; zazihlelwe ngamaviyo ezigodi zangakubo, zingahleliwe ngokwelamana ngamabutho njengokwenhlalayenza. Kwakuyizinsizwa zoSuthu zikaNdabuko kaMpande, kube ngezakwaButhelezi zikaTshanibezwe kaMnyamana, kube ngezaseGazini zikaHlezibane, kube ngezaseMgazini zikaMabhoko kaMasiphula, kube ngezakwaNdwandwe zikaMgojana kaSomaphunga, kube ngezaseBaQulusini nezaseMphangisweni zoMntwana uMahanana kaMpande kanye nezakwaMdlalose. UMakhoba kaMaphitha kaSonjica, umfowabo kaZibhebhu, owayehambisana noSuthu, nguyena owayebekwe ukuthi ayilawule, ayiphake ayikhombe impi.
Lwasuka uSuthu, lwenyukela kwelaseMkhuze, lwaphikelela ekomkhulu likaZibhebhu eBanganomo, lusophe ukuluqeda udlame, lumnqobe uMandlakazi. Akubanga njalo: Noma lalingengakanani-nje ibutho likaZibhebhu kwaMandlakazi (kuthiwa kwakuyizinsizwa eziyinkulungwane nengxenye >1500< kanye namasotsha abeLungu ayeholwa nguJohan Colenbrander, `uTozana´), lakwazi ukuluyenga, luluholele esifeni uSuthu, laluthelekela uSuthu lungalindele, kwalala ucaca, kwavalwa ngehlahla eMsebe (30 Ndasa 1883); abasindayo bahlehla, babaleka baze bayofika ezinkalweni zakwaNongoma. Wanqoba uZibhebhu nabelekeleli bakhe abamhlophe.

Ezinsizweni ezibalelwa enkulungwaneni (1000) ezasala zidindilizile empini yaseMsebe kwaMandlakazi kwakunamadodana amahlanu kaMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande, kuneshumi lamadodana kaMnyamana kaNgqengelele wakwaButhelezi, kwasala umholi wamabutho uMakhoba kaMaphitha kaSonjica, kwathunjwa uMntwana uSitheku kaMpande kanye noNdulunga kaMnyamana.

AMANGISI NOZIBHEBHU – UMANDLAKAZI EMSEBE NASONDINI (Ndasa-Ntulikazi 1883)

Kusukela kuleso sibhicongo saseMsebe (30 Ndasa 1883) kuya kukhukhulela-ngoqo wasoNdini (21 Ntulikazi 1883), lapho uZibhebhu nabelekeleli bakhe balujuma uSuthu ekomkhulu leNkosi uCetshwayo, kwasala umlotha emabaleni, kwasinda owazibalekelayo, kwakuhlaselwana kungapheli – nguZibhebhu namaviyo akhe akwaMandlakazi belekelelwa nguHhamu namasotsha amaNgisi ngapha, uSuthu ngapha lubambisene namaviyo aBaQulusi nakaMnyamana nawabakwaMdlalose.

Kwathi uma kufika ingxenye yamaviyo akwaNgenetsheni, asuka kwaMfemfe, efika emzini kaZibhebhu, ekuVukeni, ezohlangana namaviyo akwaMandlakazi, kuvivwa (20 Ntulikazi 1883), kwasoleka sengathi uZibhebhu uhlose ukuhlasela uMnyamana.

Uthe esuka uZibhebhu wayenqamula ubusuku namabutho akhe, kwasa sebesemabaleni oNdini, balujuma uSuthu namabutho komkhulu leNkosi uCetshwayo (21 Ntulikazi 1883).

Izaba zokuzivikela zaphelela ezeni: Asukuma amabutho – uFalaza neNgobamakhosi kanye noThulwana noMcijo, belekelelwa uDloko noMxhapho noNokhekhe noMbonambi – ahloma, ahlangabezana naye uZibhebhu nabelekeleli bakhe beqhamuka ngoMthenuntengayo . Kwanhlanga zemuka nomoya.

Ahlehla amabutho eNkosi kwaze kwafikiswana emabaleni komkhulu, kwavalwa ngehlahla. Abasindayo bagcwala izinkalo. Kwathi namabutho ayekade ekwaNodwengu – uDududu, iSangqu neMbube – ephuthuma ezokwelekelela, ahlangatshezwa umdibi wabasinde ngokuzibalekela, aphenduka nawo, agcwala iziganga. INkosi uCetshwayo yasinda ngokucasha enhlanganweni yemihosha iNtukwini noMbilane, okwathi ngokuphola kwamanxeba, yaqhubekela eNkandla, ukuyofihla khona ikhanda.

Ngokubhujiswa kwekomkhulu leNkosi uCetshwayo oNdini, kwaphumelela isu lombuso wamaNgisi lokuyeqhatha impi, bazibulalanele, kuzuze obeqhathileyo.

UMANDLAKAZI NAMANGISI NAMABHUNU KWELENKOSI UCETSHWAYO (1883-1884)

Kusukela empini yasoNdini (21 Ntulikazi 1883) kuya ekukhothameni kweNkosi uCetshwayo (8 Nhlolanja 1884) kwasekungene namaBhunu kulolu dlame, ehlasela, efuza imizi, ephanga imfuyo kwelaseBaQulusini nasesifundeni sakwaMdlalose, amaNgisi esethumele amabutho ayewalande eGibralta, eSpain phesheya, awalindisa emlonyeni woThukela (Fort Pearson) ngaphambi kokuwedlulisela eShowe (20 Mandulo 1883) ukuyobhuqisisa okwakungabe kwakusasele emva kukakhukhulela-ngoqo oNdini, uZibhebhu nabelekeleli bakhe basabalala, baphikelela ukucoboshisa yonke insalela yoSuthu ababesengayithola:

UNgenetsheni wenyusa iMfolozi-eMhlophe, uMandlakazi wenyusa iMfolozi-eMnyama bephanga imfuyo, becolisisa, bethungela imizi lapho bedlula khona. UMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande wazama, elekelelwa nguMnyamana noZiwedu, ukuholekela emahlathini aseNgome namaviyo angamashumi amabili (20) beyovivela ukubhekana nolaka oluzayo. Kwabalekwa eBaQulusini, abanye bayocasha ezintabeni zaseHlobani, abanye benyusa izwe, beqa uBivane; kwabalekwa kulo lonke eliphakathi neMfolozi-eMnyama noMhlathuze, kanjalo nakwaMdlalose, kwehlelwa kwesaseMzinyathi noThukela – kulesi sifunda amaNgisi ayesasabela ushifu uHlubi kaMlifi (Molefe) wabaTlokwa kanye noNdabazabantu bamaNgisi (1879) okwakugqugquzelwa ukuthi bathuthele khona bonke abasebegcine bevunyisiwe ukuthi baphume embusweni weNkosi uCetshwayo baye `ezabelweni´ („reserve territory“). Kubalekelwa ulaka lukaZibhebhu namasotsha amaNgisi amelekelelayo.

Wayeseqonde emahlathini aseNkandla uZibhebhu ukuyoyivimbezela khona iNkosi uCetshwayo, esesezintabeni zaseBabanango (24 Mandulo 1883), lapho azikhuza khona, akabe esaqhubeka, enqena ukuthi amaNgisi angase angakuthakaseli ukungena kwakhe kulesisifunda esiphakathi koMhlathuze noThukela – `ezabelweni´. Ulapha-nje useqhamuka kwesaseMfolozi-eMnyama lapho ayelekelelwa khona nguMfanawendlela wakwaZungu ukuzama ukufuqa uMnyamana, bamxoshe kwesaseSihlengeni, bamdudulele emahlathini aseNgome. UNgenetsheni wayekade eqeda-nje ukuphinda ahlasele eGazini nakwaButhelezi (20 Mandulo 1883), eshiye kuvalwe ngehlahla. AbakwaMagwaza kanye noSuthu olukanye neNkosi uCetshwayo kwelaseNkandla uZibhebhu wayenqena ukuthi bazoviva, bamhlasele; efuna ukuphuthuma ayobathena amandla bengakasuki.

Ekufikeni kwaleli buthokazi lamaNgisi eShowe (29 Mandulo 1883) elalikade lilandwe phesheya, lasuka iNxusa loMbuso wamaNgisi kwaZulu (British Resident in Zululand) uHenry Francis Fynn, laqonda eNkosini uCetshwayo emahlathini aseNkandla (13 Mfumfu 1883) okuthiwa laliyobonisana naye ngobucayi besimo akuso; okwathi uma libuya lapho, iNkosi uCetshwayo yasukuma, yazinikela ukuyocela isikhuselo enqabeni yeNxusa eliphakeme lombuso wamaNgisi (British Resident Commissioner) eShowe, uMelmoth Osborn (15 Mfumfu 1883) iqhutshwa yiviyo likashifu uHlubi kaMlifi (Molefe) eligibele amahhashi. UZibhebhu wayesesuke ngayizolo eBabanango, waphindela kwakhe.

Yaqhubeka yaviva impi: UMntwana uShingana kaMpande waluhlomisa uSuthu kwesaseMfolozi-eMhlophe, lwahlasela uSiyunguza kaSilwana wakwaMpungose, lwamxosha, lwaye lwambeka `ezabelweni´ (reserve territory) phakathi koMhlathuze noThukela (09 Lwezi 1883). Amanye amaviyo kaMntwana uShingana ahlasela uMgitshwa kaMvundlana wakwaBiyela (29 Mfumfu 1883) ngenkathi amaviyo amane akwaBiyela ayesaphumile, eyokwelekelela amaviyo ayisithupha kaMandlakazi namasotsha abamhlophe ayeholwa nguJohan Colenbrander beyohlasela uSomopho wasemaNgweni. USuthu lwahlasela uMfanawendlela wakwaZungu owabaleka weqa iMfolozi-eMnyama wayokhusela kwesikaZibhebhu (5 Lwezi 1883). AmaBhunu ayelokhu ezinzile esifundeni sakwaMdlalose naseBaQulusini lapho ayekade engene khona ngendluzula, ashaqa imfuyo, ashisa imizi, kwavalwa ngehlahla. Kuthe kusenjalo, abakwaMdlalose baqhanyukelwa nguNgenetsheni (ekupheleni kukaLwezi/ekuqaleni kukaZibandlela), bahlaselwa nxa zombili kanyekanye – ngamaBhunu ngapha, nguNgenetsheni ngapha kanti namaNgisi noZibhebhu abaphumule!

Ekugamanxeni kukaZibandlela (14 Zibandlela 1883) amaviyo oSuthu ayeholwa nguMankulumana kaSomaphunga noNdabazimbi kaTokotoko amfica, ambulala uMfanawendlela emzini wakhe eMomolweni. Lwazizwa lwelulama uSuthu. Lwabuthana lwagudla iSikhwebezi, luvivela ukuhlasela uZibhebhu emzini wakhe ekuVukeni. Wasuka kuqala uZibhebhu, wathumela amaviyo akhe kaMandlakazi, alujuma uSuthu kwesaseSikhwebezi, kwalala ucaca (440), abasindayo bahlakazeka.

UKUKHOTHAMA KWENKOSI UCETSHWAYO (8 Nhlolanja 1884)

Dukuduku yakhothama ngokukhulu ukuzuma iNkosi uCetshwayo (8 Nhlolanja 1884), uSuthu lusolela ekutheni kwakukade kuthunyelwe, yaloywa; kunukwa uZibhebhu. INkosi uCetshwayo ikhothama ishiya uMntwana uDinuzulu esengumfanyana-nje weminyaka eyishumi nesihlanu (15), okwasuka uMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande noMnyamana kaNgqengelele bakhuthalela ukuthi kube yibo abamkhulisayo, bameluleke.

AMANGISI NOZIBHEBHU NAMABHUNU UZULU EZILILE (8 Nhlolanja – 5 Nhlangulana 1884)

Kwathi iqambe iphelekezelwa iNkosi isiyohlangana nabaphansi ekuphumuleni kokuphela kwesaseNkandla (23 Mbasa 1884), uZulu esalila, lwase lubhokile futhi ulaka lwabombuso wamaNgisi; uMalimede (Melmoth Osborn), iNxusa eliphambili loMbuso wamaNgisi “esabelweni” esiphakathi koMhlathuze noThukela (British Resident Commissioner of the Reserve Territory) wayeqale phansi futhi evivisa amabutho akhe, ecothele ukuphinda ahlasele amaviyo oSuthu kwesaseNkandla. Kwabanezinxushunxushu ezawathikazisa amaNgisi ekuqoqeni intela emizini ayeyivumele ukuthi ihlale ezifundeni ayezibhekelwe ngoshifu bawo oDunn noHlubi “ezabelweni” phakathi koMhlathuze noThukela; uSuthu lwaseluqala ukwemukeleka ngesasasa emizini eminingi (2 Nhlaba 1884) axwaya amashifu, axwayisa nabamhlophe.

Kwenzeka konke lokhu-nje, eBaQulusini asefike ngezinkani amaBhunu, afike ashaqa imfuyo, aphundla izinqolobane, ashiza imizi; abasindayo babaleka behla nezwe baze bayovinjwa uMzinyathi. ISekela likaNdabazabantu wombuso wamaNgisi kwesaseNquthu uA. L. Pretorius waphuthuma, walanda amaviyo abaTlokwa bakaHlubi (“the Basutos”) ahlome ngezibhamu, egibele amahhashi, ukuthi ahlangabezane nabaseBaQulusini abaxoshwa ngamaBhunu (20 Nhlaba 1884). Baphenduka aBaQulusi, baqonda kwesaseSihlengeni, lapho baficana khona nomkhankaso woSuthu wokulungiselela ukuyoziphindisela uZibhebhu.

UMalimede (Melmoth Osborn) waqoqa ibutho lezinkulungwane ezintathu zezinsizwa zabomdabu (“3000 native levies”), wazihlomisa, wazijuba ukuthi zilinde ziwudwendwe olugudle uMhlathuze kusuka ogwini lolwandle kuze kube maqondana neNkandla – ezingasogwini zabekwa phansi kukaJohn Dunn okwakungomunye wamashifu ayishumi nantathu (13) ayebekwe ekunqotshweni kukaZulu oLundi okwalandelwa ukuchithwa kweNkosi uCetshwayo esihlalweni sayo (1879). Ngenhla kwalapho elinye iviyo lenkulungwane namashumi ayisithupha (1600) labekwa phansi kukaMartin Oftebro, indodana yowayesuke eNoweyi (Norway) eze ngokwentumo yokuzoshumayela ivangeli kwaZulu, owayesehumushela amabutho amaNgisi isiZulu (“a missionary’s son and Zulu interpreter to the British troops”); kanye nelinye futhi lenkulungwane namashumi amahlanu (1500) elalijutshwe ukukhwanya liqaphelisise lize leqele ngaphesheya koMzinyathi, liholwa nguF. Galloway – omabili elekelelwa yinkulungwane namashumi amahlanu (1500) amaviyo abaTlokwa bakaHlubi (“the Basutos”) ababekade bejutshwe nguNdabazabantu uPretorius eNquthu ukuyodudula abaseBaQulusini ababexoshwa ngamaBhunu, sebethi balekela kwesaseMzinyathi.

USUTHU LUNQOBA AMANGISI KWELASENKANDLA NOSOKWETSHATHA KWESAKWAMBONAMBI

Uthe esuka-ke uMalimede (Melmoth Osborn) wayewaqoqela maqondana neNkandla amaviyo ezinkulungwane ezintathu (3000) eholwa nguSiyunguza wakwaMpungose noMavumengwana kaNdlela wakwaNtuli namasotsha amaNgisi angamashumi amahlanu (50) ayeholwa ngoGeorge Mansel noDick Addison (5 Nhlaba 1884). Luthe uma luphuma uSuthu ehlathini luholwa nguMntwana uDabulamanzi kaMpande (10 Nhlaba 1884), lwaqonda ngqo, lwawahlasela amaviyo kaMalimede, kwalala ucaca; wahlehla uMalimede nabayizinkulungwane ezimbili ababesasele (2000) baze bayokhosela enqabeni yabo ngaseNtumeni (Fort Chater); uMntwana uDabulamanzi kaMpande noSuthu kwelaseNkandla bamxosha baze bacishe bamweza uMhlathuze uMalimede namaviyo akhe kanye noDunn nawakhe – lwanqoba uSuthu (12 Nhlaba 1884).

Ingakabekwa-nje naphansi iNkosi uCetshwayo (phakathi noNhlolanja 1884), uSokwetshatha wakwaMthethwa kwesakwaMbonambi, owayengomunye wababevumelana noZibhebhu, wajuma uSomkhele wakwaMpukunyoni phesheya kweMfolozi, wamhlasela ephindelela. Luthe uma luphindisela uSuthu luholwa nguSomkhele, lwamxosha lwaze lwamweza uMhlathuze uSokwetshatha – “ezabelweni” (4 Ndasa 1884). Kwathi esephinda uSomkhele ehlasela, eselekelelwa nguBhejana noLokothwayo basemaNgweni phezu koMhlathuze (23-24 Ndasa 1884), bamxosha uSokwetshatha bamphindisela “ezabelweni” ngaphesheya koMhlathuze koJohn Dunn noMalimede namashifu namasotsha abo. Lwanqoba uSuthu.

AMANGISI NAMASHIFU NAMASOTSHA KWELASENKANDLA (Nhlaba – Nhlangulana 1884)

UMalimede (Melmoth Osborn) uthe esuka wayesejuba amaviyo abaTlokwa bakaHlubi (“the Basutos”) ukuthi bazomphindisela eNkandla, bahlasele uSuthu. Wafika ushifu uHlubi eNsingabantu eQhudeni namaviyo akhe ahlome ngezibhamu nagibele amahhashi kanye nangamakhulu amane (400) ayewaqashelwe (“native levies”) eholwa nguMatshana kaMondisa wakwaSithole noFaku kaZiningo wakwaNtombela kanye noMbuzo wakwaNtuli (18 Nhlaba 1884); bahlasela abakwaNtuli oKathongweni, okwakukade kungumuzi kaGodide kaNdlela owasala empini yasoNdini, baphanga imfuyo, bathungela imizi. Abasinda lapho babalekela emahlathini aseNkande; uHlubi nabelekeleli bakhe bedlulela kwamanye amaviyo oSuthu eNtaleni, kwalala ucaca (50).

Kwathi noma ayegculisekile uMalimede (Melmoth Osborn) ngokuphumelela kwamaviyo abaTlokwa bakaHlubi (“the Basutos”) ekutshwelezeni nasekubulaleni uSuthu “ezabelweni” phakathi noMhlathuze noThukela, wanquma ukuletha amasotsha amasha angamakhulu ayisishiyagalombili (800) uMlawuli wamaButho oMbuso wamaNgisi eNingizimu Afrika (British General Officer Commanding in South Africa) uLt-Gen H.A. Smyth. Atheleka “ezabelweni” (27 Nhlaba 1884).

UMntwana uDabulamanzi kaMpande – elekelelwa nguMehlokazulu kaSihayo wasemaQungebeni noNdabankulu wakwaNtombela kanye noSigananda kaSokufa wasemaNcubeni – waphuma namaviyo ayishumi nesithupha (16) eNkandla, wahlasela uMbuzo wakwaNtuli eMtanjeni phezu koThukela; kwaphuthuma ushifu uHlubi namaviyo akhe beyokwelekelela uMbuzo, bephelekezelwa nguFaku wakwaNtombela nawakhe (“native levies”), babulala amashumi amabili (20) ezinsizwa zoSuthu. Wasinda ngokulambisa uMntwana uDabulamanzi; indodana yakhe uMzikele yasala lapho. Lwahlakazeka uSuthu, kwathi abayisishiyagalolunye ababalekela ngaphesheya koThukela, babulalwa ngabakwaKhabela bakaGayed kaMakedama (1 Nhlangula 1884). Waguduza sonke esaseNsuze uHlubi nabalandeli bakhe, baphanga imfuyo – inkulungwane nekhulu namashumi amane nesishiyagalolunye lwezinkomo (1 149) nekhulu namashumi amahlanu ezimbuzi nezimvu (150).

Kwathi uma uMelimade (Melmoth Osborn) ehlola isimo ukuze awahlele kabusha amacebo akhe (10 Nhlangula 1884), walinganisela ekutheni uSuthu lusenamaviyo angamashumi amathathu nesithupha (36) – izinsizwa eziyizinkulungwane ezimbili nekhulu namashumi ayisithupha (2 160) – emahlathini aseNkandla, yena walinganisela ekutheni unamaviyo ayikhulu namashumi amathathu nanhlanu (135) – izinsizwa eziyizinkulungwane eziyisishiyagalombili nekhulu (8 100) – zabomdabu abaqashelwe ukumlwela (“native levies”). Wayefuna ukuthi izinkulungwane ezine (4 000) zamaviyo akhe abomdabu zibhekane-nje noSuthu eNkandla, bese kuthi ingxenye esele yenyuke nezwe iyoviva, iqaphele ngaseMzinyathi naseNquthu, yelekelelwa ngushifu uHlubi namaviyo akhe kanye namasotsha amaNgisi.

USUTHU LUNQOBA UMANDLAKAZI EMPINI YASETSHANENI (5 Nhlangulana 1884)

UZibhebhu wathi uma ezwa ukuthi uMnyamana uhlangene noSuthu nabakwaMdlalose emahlathini aseNgome, bemukela abakwaMagwaza namaQungebe abuya kwesaseMzinyathi, waphuthuma wayovivisa amaviyo angamashumi amathathu nanhlanu (35) eTokazi, maqondana-nje namahlathi aseNgome. Uthe engakagadli, kwasuka uHhamu, wajumisa eNgome, kwasinda abazibalekela bayocasha.

Kuthe uMntwana uNdabuko kaMpande noMntwana uZiwedu kaMpande kanye noMntwana uShingana kaMpande sebembekile ngokwesiko uMntwana uDinuzulu kaCetshwayo esihlalweni sakhe sobukhosi bakwaZulu (20 Nhlaba 1884), wahlangana nesishomo samaBhunu ayeholwa nguLukas Meyer kanye neJalimane uAdolf Schiel kwesaseBaQulusini, babonisana ngendlela uSuthu olungakhuthazwa ngalo ukunqoba uMandlakazi. AmaBhunu ayehlome ngezibhamu, egibele amahhashi; njengamaNgisi nawo ayekade ezingena izimpi ezilwiwayo, azihlwithele akutholayo – ikakhulukazi imfuyo namadlelo namasimu.

UZibhebhu uthe uma ezwa ngokuhlangana kweNkosi uDinuzulu namaBhunu eBaQulusini, waholekela eBangonomo noMandlakazi – izinsizwa eziyizinkulungwane ezintathu (3 000).
Luthe uSuthu seluqonda eBanganomo ukuyohlasela uMandlakazi, amaBhunu nezibhamu zawo (120) alulandela, ebheke ukwelekelela, uma uMandlakazi noma uNgenetsheni ethuka ebanyonyobela, ebajuma ngemuva. INkosi uDinuzulu yawahola amaviyo oSuthu – izinkulungwane eziyisithupha (6 000) zezinsizwa – bathi uma bewela uMkhuze, zanqwamana noMandlakazi emmangweni ezansi kwentatshana, iTshaneni; uSuthu lwamshaya, lwamnqoba uMandlakazi, wehlulwa uZibhebhu (5 Nhlangula 1884). Abasindayo babaleka bayozicashela emigedeni ezintabeni zasoBonjeni.

nguBheni wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini [Ben Khumalo-Seegelken]
2005

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INQOLOBANE YOLWAZI:

Jeff Guy. 1980. Destruction of the Zulu Kingdom: The Civil War in Zululand, 1879-1884. ISBN 9780582646865
Jeff Guy. 1979. The Anglo-Zulu War of 1879: Two Centenary Lectures. ISBN 9780854945481
John Laband. 2001. The Atlas of the Later Zulu Wars 1883-1888. ISBN 0-86980-998-9
Ben Khumalo-Seegelken. 1996-. Umlando (ongoing research).

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  1. […] kwavezela ingcosana eyayisasele ithutshana lokukhosela nokuphemba amakhaya emasha, okwathi emva kokukhothama kweNkosi uCetshwayo [1884] kwabonakala ukuthi sekungcono ukuzama ukuzinza emanxiweni amasha kunokuzama ukubuyela […]

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