uScott Couper ngoAlbert Luthuli

uAlbert Luthuli

 uSCOTT  COUPER  ngoALBERT  LUTHULI:

„uAlbert Luthuli   –   ikholwa ngokuqinisekileyo“

Incwadi elotshwe nguScott Couper©

“Albert Luthuli.  Bound by Faith”

 Isihlangene yedlula iminyaka engamashumi amahlanu (50) “uMkhonto weSizwe/MK”, uphiko lwabahlomileyo kwaKhongolose (African National Congress of South Africa/ANC), “wasungulwa, wethulwa emphakathini” (“launched”) nguNelson Rolihlahla Mandela zilishumi nesithupha kuZibandlela kowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi ayisithupha nanye (16 Disemba 1961), kungakedluli zinsuku zingaki-nje uAlbert Luthuli, owayenguMongameli kaKhongolose, “okwakuyinqubo yakhe ngqo ukuzabalaza ngaphandle kokuviva nokuxozomisa ngezikhwepha”[1], eqeda ukubuya ukuyokwemukela umklomelo owaziwayo wabakhuthalele ezokwazisana nokuzwana, iNobel Peace Prize, eOslo phesheya, zilishumi kuye uZibandlela lowo (10 Disemba 1961), nanamuhla lokhu usabekwa kuphindelelwa umbuzo othi uAlbert Luthuli wavumelana wahambisana na nalesi sinyathelo (sokusungulwa koMkhonto weSizwe) uScott Couper asibiza ngokuthi “ukuphambukela kukaKhongolose kwezezikhwepha”[2]

UScott Couper ugcizelela uthi uMhlonishwa ngezokwAzisana nokuZwana uAlbert Luthuli (1897-1967), owayenguMongameli-jikelele kaKhongolose kusukela kowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi amahlanu nambili (1952) kuze kube sekwedluleni kwakhe emhlabeni ngowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi aysithupha nesikhombisa (1967), akazange nanini avume ukuphambuka ekubambeleleni kwakhe ekuzabalazeni ngaphandle kokuxozomisa ngezikhwepha, aphendukele ekuhambisaneni nokuthatha izikhali kulo mzabalazo naye (uLuthuli) luqobo lwakhe ayekuwo wokulwela ukuchitha umbuso wobandlululo nengcindezelo, umbuso weapartheid, kuphenjwe umbuso wentando yeningi – wabambelelisisa impela lapho, kusho uCouper.   Wanda kabanzi okaCouper ekubaleni imininingwane elanda ngempilo kaLuthuli kusuka ebunganeni nasekukhuleni kuze kube sekusebenzeni kwakhe nababethintene naye kwezenkolo nasekufundiseni nakwezombangazwe ikakhulukazi esabelweni sabentumo yenkolo (mission-reserve) saseGroutville kwaDukuza, ngalokho uCouper ezama ukwesekela lo mbono wakhe ozwakala sengathi uqondé-nje ukuchukuluza, kanti futhi ube uzwakala wemukeleka, sengathi ushaya emhlolweni.

Isihloko sale ncwadi kanye nendlela eshubileyo nenesifudumezi “isingeniso” (1) esibhalwe ngayo, okuba sengathi kuzanywa ukulwethula nokuluphetha khona lapho-nje lolu daba isingeniso esiza nalo, kusolisa sengathi umlobi naye uselibele ukwenza leli phutha akhononda ngokuthi lenziwa yilaba azama ukubakhuza – ukusebenzisa ugazi nokwaziswa kothile kuzanywa ukuphemba ukwemukeleka nokwesekeka kombono noma kwesinyathelo esithile. “Bound by Faith”:Ngelomlomo kaLuthuli luqobo lwakhe lelo zwi?  Nini?  Kwenzenjani?  Empeleni ngakabani la mazwi; kuqondweni ngawo?  UScott Couper usebenzisa ephindelela igama elithi “ubudlova”[3] njalo-nje uma ekhuluma ngezaba okugcinwa kuphendukwelwe kuzo uma kuzanywa ukuzivikela nokuziphindisela ochukwini nasolakeni lwababusi becindezela umphakathi.

Kule ncwadi “ewumphumela wobufundiswa obunenkuthalo nocwaningo olunengcophelelo” (Paddy Kearney) – “eyibala elifundeka ngokuhlaba umxhwele   kwabakhuthalele ukwazi ngomlando wakwelaseNingizimu Afrika” –  uAlbert Luthuli uvezwa esuka phansi, abonakale njengomntwana onemfundiso nokuzethemba, akhule aqhubekele ekubeni ngumfundi nomlandeli obazisayo “ababemfundisa abamhlophe, amaKhristu, (ababaziswa ngokuthi babelungile)”[4], abentumo yenkolo (“missioners”) nabaqhwagi bezwe (colonists) bebandla lamaCongregational ebunganeni nasebusheni bakhe kwelaseRodeshiya (namuhla: elaseZimbabwe) naseNatali (namuhla: elaKwaZulu-Natali) phakathi kowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalombili namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesikhombisa (1897) nowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye neshumi nesikhombisa (1917).  Insizwa uLuthuli, iba nguthishela, ngumyeni womkayo, nguyise wabantwabayo nomshumayeli ebandleni lakubo-nje (1928-1935), igxile kanti futhi iyingxenye yabambalwa abathile ababekhulele ekukholweni nasekufundisweni ezikoleni njengaye, abahlobo nozakwabo nababaziswa, njengoJohn Langalibalele Dube (1871-1946), oPixley Isaka kaSeme (1881-1951), oAllison Wessels George Champion (1893-1975), oCharles Mpanza (1895-1960)  noDr Mordeciah Gumede (1917-1993). ULuthuli wangenela ukhetho, wakhethwa waba ngushifu (“chief”) wabaseMakholweni esabelweni sabenkolo saseGroutville kwaDukuza ngowenkulungwane namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi amathathu nanhlanu (1935) – okwakuyisikhundla kwayena ayevame ukuseya, asigxeke ethi yisikhundla-nje sokuba “umfanyana okuthiwe akabhekele abamphetheyo”[5] –, walandela uJohn Dube  wangena kuNative Representative Council/NRC ngowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi amathathu nanhlanu (1935) okwakungesinye sezilibaziso ezazisezandleni zabacindezeli -, wenqaba ukuqhubeka asebenzelane neNRC emhlanganweni wokuqala ngqa ayekuwo yaze yagcina isifadalele (1951).

Ofunda le ncwadi uthola ulwazi ngezisekelo nezindima zempilo yobukholwa ebandleni lobuCongregational (9), aqondisise ukuthi kuChief Albert Luthuli kwakusekhaya, futhi egxilile enkolweni nasenkonzweni yaleli bandla.  Umlobi uxoxa nangesu lenhlangano yentsha kaKhongolose (ANCYL) – eyayisungulwe ngowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi amane nane (1944), ikhuthalelwe nangoNelson Mandela, noWalter Sisulu  noMasabalala ‘Bonnie’ Yengwa (1923-1987) – isu layo lokukhuthaza uChief Albert Luthuli ukuthi amele ukhetho lobongameli bukaKhongolose kwelaseNatali (mhla ka30 Meyi 1951) lapho okwaqala khona leli banga elaqhubeka labasemqoka kakhulu empilweni kaLuthuli nasemlandweni weNingizimu Afrika kuze kube sekwedluleni kwakhe emhlabeni (ngo1967).

Ngesikhathi enguMongameli-jikelele kaKhongolose (1952-1967) emva kukaDr James Moroka (1891-1985), uChief Albert Luthuli wayengumphathi-sihlalo emikhandlwini nasemihlanganweni, ekhuluma nezihlwele ezimbizweni, ehola izigungu zabaphathi kuhlelwa, kucetshiswana, kulanyulwa, kuvunyelwana.  Abombuso wobandlululo nengcindezelo yeapartheid basebemephucile isikhundla sobushifu (ngoNovemba 1952) emva kokuba sebehlulekile ukumphoqelela ukuthi abeke phansi ukuba yilungu nokusebenzelana noKhongolose.  UBanjiswano loMfelandawonje (iDefiance Campaign: ngoJuni 1952), umkhankaso wokumema ababezokhuthalela ezenkululeko (call for non-violent Freedom Volunteers: ngoMashi 1954), uNgqungquthela waseKliptown (Congress of the People, Kliptown: 1955) nemihlangano elandela leyo eBloemfontein naseOrlando (1956) ephathelene nokubhalwa nokuphakanyiswa kukaZwi-Msuka weNkululeko (iFreedom Charter), ukumangelelwa nokuthethwa kwecalakazi elalethweswe abathize ababesemzabalazweni wenkululeko (iTreason Trial:1956-1960), indluzula nokubuwa kwababekhononda bengahlomile eSharpeville (1961) nokuthethwa kwecalakazi elalethweswe abathize ababesemzabalazweni wenkululeko (iRivonia Trial: 1963-1964) ngezinye zezigigaba ezingasoze zakhohlakala emlandweni womzabalazo wenkululeko uAlbert Luthuli ayekuzo njengenhloko nomhlandla.

UScott Couper uzama kuphumeleleke ukwenekela ofundayo yonke imibuzo nezinkinga ingqondo kaAlbert Luthuli eyayibhekene nazo, ezazikhandla zikhathaza umphefumulo nempilo yakhe ziphindelela, zithikazisa ukuphepha nokwaziseka nesithunzi sakhe ngaleyo minyaka, okwenza ofunda le ncwadi ambone ngokusondeleyo uMongameli-jikelele kaKhongolose ephakathi naphakathi ezididini ezazibhokile, zixukumeza lonke elaseNingizimu Afrika ngaleyo minyaka (1952-1967) – kusukela ekuphikisaneni ngemibono nasekubangisaneni izikhundla kwaKhongolose nasemaqenjini okwakusetshenzelwana nawo, kuya ochungechungeni lweziwombe zokuxozonyiswa nokuthungathwa (ukuhlaliswa ovalweni, ukwethweswa isigwebo sokunqunywa umlomo, ukubanjwa ayohlushwa evalelwe ejele) kuze kuyoshaya ekuqinisweni kwezibopho zengcindezelo nokubasengozini yokujunywa, kubhujiswe ngabombuso wobandlululo weapartheid.  Incwadi eyalotshwa nguLuthuli ethi “The Road to Freedom is Via the Cross” (1952) nethi “Let My People Go” (1962) kanye namazwi akhe efakaza ecaleni iRivonia Trial (1964) athi “ … akekho ongasola abantu abanesibindi, abaqotho, ebasolela ukuzabalazela kwabo ubulungiswa nenhlalakahle besebenzisa izikhwepha”[6] – konke lokhu uyakubala akuchaze uCouper ngendlela eyenza ukuthi umfundi awulandelisise, awazi, ungabe usamdukela kalula umkhondo kaLuthuli nesimilo nokuma kwakhe okwakungazamaziseki, emelene nengcindezelo, kanye nentshisekelo yakhe enzulu, ezondelele ukuthi kuphiliswane ngokombuso wentando yeningi ongenalubandlululo.

‘Umzabalazo kuhlonyiwe – yebo noma cha? Wayevumelana nawo uLuthuli?’  OkaCouper ujula akhe phansi, echaza ephindelela kucishe kuze kunengise, ezama ukubeka izizathu nokucacisa ngezimo ezaholela ezingxoxweni nasezivumelwaneni ngowenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi ayisithupha nanye (1961), aze afike ekutheni “esikhundleni sokumjuba uMandela ukuthi akhe inhlangano yokuhlonyiswa, izinhlangano zomzabalazo kanye noKhongolose ‘bamvumela’ noma ‘bamdedela’ ukuthi enze njalo, abaze bamxwayisa ngokuthi bazomkhuza ngesijeziso.”[7]

Izikhathi ezinzima, eseyedwana manje owayengumholi owayetuswa ngekhono nokwethembeka kwakhe, umhlahlandlela owayehlonishwa, kanye nezikhathi zezinxushunxushu nezingxabano ezaziwayo “zakokhongolose”, ngezikhathi zecalakazi iRivonia Trial (1964) kuze kube sekubhubheni kwakhe okaLuthuli (1967), uzibalisisa azichaze ngokucophela okugculisayo okaCouper encwadini yakhe.

Ulendlala ngenkuthalo nangobunono uScott Couper igceke abeka kulo uAlbert Luthuli, aphumele obala ewuchazisisa ngokukholekayo umbono wakhe kulolu daba olujiye kangaka “ngezomzabalazo kuhlonyiwe noma kungahlonyiwe, ezokukhononda nezokulwela inkululeko”.[8]  Ofundayo – emva kwalolu hambokazi olude olwembula ulwazi oluningi ngezigigaba nemishikashika ebalulekile emlandweni oseduze welaseNingizimu Afrika – useboné wethwasa ngokwenele ukuthi naye usengavela nowakhe umbono kulolu daba.

UCouper: “Nòkho kwakunokwehlukana emibonweni yabo kwezepolitiki ngoJulayi kowe1961, uMandela akazange nanini azikhohlwe izifundo ezazifundiswa nguLuthuli. Nòma kunjalo, uMandela noLuthuli abakaze bafane.” (206)  Kunjalo!

nguBheni kaMkhulunyelwa noMaZungu wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini

ekwaMachanca eJalimane  [uDkt. uBen Khumalo-Seegelken]

www.biblia-zuluensis.de

20.11.2010

©

 

© uMfundisi uDokotela uScott Couper usebenzela iBandla iUnited Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA) njengoMphathi kwezeNtuthuko (Development Manager) esikoleni iNanda Seminary  KwaZulu-Natali kubanjiswene nenhlangano iGlobal Ministries yamaBandla oUnited Church of Christ  neChristian Church (Disciples of Christ) aseMelika eseNyakatho (USA).

Imininingwane ngale ncwadi: Scott Couper: Albert Luthuli. Bound by Faith. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press (2010), ISBN 978 1 86914 192 9 (amakhasi angama-291)                   

[1]  Ngamazwi kaScott Couper ekhasini lekhulu namashumi amabili nesishiyagalolunye (129) kule ncwadi yakhe: “for whom non-violence was not just a method, but The Method” …

[2] “the ANC’s turn to violence” (uScott Couper ekhasini lesine: 4)

[3] “violence”

[4]“white liberal male lay Christian educators” (33)

[5] “an ‘appointed boss-boy’” (41)

[6]“… no one can blame brave just men for seeking justice by the use of violent methods” (175)

[7] “rather than mandating Mandela to form an armed organisation, the alliance of congresses and the ANC ‘permitted’ or ‘allowed’ this, without the threat of disciplinary action.” (205)

[8]“violent or non-violent resistance, protest and fight for liberation”

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