uAlbert Luthuli eOslo – 11.12.1961

KwelaseMangwaneni

uAlbert Luthuli eOslo – 11.12.1961

“iAfrika neNkululeko”

Le nkulumo eyethulwa nguMhlonishwa uAlbert Luthuli eOslo zilishumi nanye kuDisemba 1961 kade ngayizolo emukela umklomelo owaziwayo wabakhuthalele ezokwazisana nokuzwana, iNobel Peace Prize, ayeyinike isihloko esithi “iAfrika neNkululeko” isematheni nonyaka njengoba kuhlangana owamashumi amahlanu (50) kusukela lapho, kanti-ke futhi uKhongolose, uLuthuli ayekade enguMongameli-jikelele wakhe kuze kube sekuhambeni kwakhe emhlabeni (1967) ubehlanganisa owekhulu (100) zolo lokhu (2012).

Izingqapheli emhlabeni wonke zaziyilindele ngamnyama le nkulumo; okaLuthuli wayengowokuqala ngqa kwelaseAfrika ukukhethelwa ukwemukeliswa lo mklomelo, ewemukeleliswa unyaka owawusuwendulele ka-1960.  Selokhu kwaqala ukwemukeliswa lo mklomelo onyakeni ka-1901, sewemukelwa nangabathile emazweni ehlukene abaziswayo ngentshisekelo yabo yenkululeko nokwazisana emphakathini – njengoMartin Luther-King jr. waseMelika (1964)  noDag Hammarskjöld waseSwidi (1961) noWilly Brandt waseJalimane (1971)  noJassir Arafat wasePhalestina (1994)  noCarl von Ossietzky waseJalimane (1935)  noKofi Annan waseGhana (2001) kanye nabakithi oDesmond Tutu (1984) noNelson Mandela (1993) noFrederik Willem de Klerk (1993).

Kuleli shashalazi avulelwa lona ongumemukeli womklomelo ukuthi ethule le nkulumo abathi yiNobel Lecture, izethameli zithola khona ithuba lokuzizwela ngemibono nezaba abaluleke ngazo kwezokulamula ezinxushunxushwini nasekukhuthazeni ukubhobokelana nobanjiswano ekudaleni inhlalakahle noxolo.  Yahluba udlubu ekhasini ekaLuthuli:

Yayikade isiwabekile ngayizolo amazwi okubonga ngokukhethwa kwayo njengowokuqala ngqa kwelaseAfrika ukuzokwethweswa le minyezane, yathi ayizibongeli yona, ibongela umphakathi wakwelakubo eNingizimu-Afrika ocindezelwe ngumbuso wobandlululo nendluzula, umbuso weapartheid, kanye nomakhelwane emazweni amanye eAfrika nabo abasashikashikana nokuthukulula izibopho nokulanda amathuba namalungelo okuziphilela nokuziphilisa iAfrika eyayiwephuciwe ezikhathini eziphambili.

Yabakhumbuza insizwa kaLuthuli ikakhulukazi abaseYurophu ukuthi abanye babo namuhla baphila emazweni abuswa ngentando yeningi, lapho imithetho yakhona ihambisana nezivumelwano zomhlaba zokuhlonipha nokuvikela amalungelo awo wonke umuntu ngokungabandlululi (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 1948) – amazwe edlula emizabalazweni nasezimpini ezinzima, ezazamazisa umhlaba ngezikhathi zazo, imizabalazo nezimpi ezifana nokusashikashikanwa nazo namuhla ikakhulukazi kwelaseAfrika.  Yabakhuthaza abangahambisani nobandlululo nobudlova ukuthi baqhubeke ukweseka umzabalazo wenkululeko eNingizimu-Afrika.

ULuthuli waliphakamisa elokuthi umphakathi waseNingizimu-Afrika ufanele ukunconywa ngokungagijimeli ekuphindiseleni ngolaka nangezikhwepha nalapho ugqilazwa, ucekelwa phansi ngezikhali – wakhumbuza ngesiwombe saseSharpeville ngoMashi wonyaka ongaphambi kwalowo (1960) lapho amaphoyisa ombuso weapartheid adubula, abulala kukhonondwa ngesihle, kungahlonyiwe.  Waqhubeka, wakhumbuza ngokuthi eminyakeni yonke engamashumi amahlanu (50) selokhu uKhongolose aqala ukuwuqhuba nokuwuhola umzabalazo wenkululeko, azikho izaba ezingakaze zizanywe ukuthukulula ifindo lobandlululo nengcindezelo ngokubonisana nangaphandle kokuthathelana izikhali nòma ababusi babelokhu beqhubekile, begqilaza, behlupha ngemithetho nangezikhali njengoba benzile naseSharpeville!  UKhongolose nezinye izinhlangano ayekade esebenzisana nazo base benikwe isaziso sokuthi sebenqatshelwe (1960), bethweswa amacala anzima abaningi ababekade bekhuthalele umzabalazo.

Lahlaba lephukela kwabathile uma okaLuthuli elimisa ngesihloko, ekhononda, ethi:   Umbuso wobandlululo nengcindezelo, umbuso weapartheid kuthi noma kwaziwa ukuthi ubusa ngobudlova nangokuchitha igazi, kube kuqhutshekwa-nje ezinhlanganweni zezizwe zomhlaba sengathi akwenzeke lutho, lo mbuso weapartheid nawo uphathwe ngokufanayo njengemibuso eqhuba ngentando yeningi nangokuhlonipha nokuvikela amalungelo awo wonke umuntu ngokungabandlululi.  Wakugxeka kwezwakala lokho.

Ikhombisa ulwazi olunzulu le nkulumo ngesimo nangokusebenzelana kwamazwe nezinhlangano zawo kwezombusazwe nezomnotho kanye nangomlando kusukela ezikhathini ezingaphambi kokufika kwabaseYurophu eAfrika naseMelika.  OkaLuthuli, ikholwa elaziwayo, uthi uma ebalisa ngokudumala anakho ngobuqili okusetshenziswa ngabo inkolo yobuKhristu ngabombuso wobandlululo nengcindezelo, umbuso weapartheid, ukuzigunyaza ukubusa ngobudlova, bagodlele abomdabu amalungelo okuziphilisa ngokunesithunzi ezweni lokhokho babo, yabacacela abaningi inselelo ababhekene nabo uma nabo njengamakholwa belangazelela ukuthi naseNingizimu-Afrika igcine ifikile inkululeko.  Wasibeka isifiso sakhe uMhlonishwa uLuthuli sokuthi sengathi imithandazo nezinqumo zoMhlangano wamaKholwa aseMhlabeni-jikelele owawukade banjwe eGoli ngaphambidlana kwalokho (Conference: World Council of Churches, Cottesloe, South Africa, 1960), zingemukeleka ezindlebeni nasezinhliziyweni zababusi kwelakubo, lupheze ulaka, ziphumelele izaba zomphakathi ukudala uxolo nokuletha inkululeko ezweni.

Isisusa sezinxushunxushu nombangazwe uLuthuli usibona ekweswelekeni kwesimilo nemfundiso emiphakathini yababusa ngendluzula, ulangazelela ukuvuselelwa kobuqotho nokwazisana emphakathini, uBuntu – ‘brotherhood of man’ njengokukhuluma kwangalezo zikhathi.  Imiphumela encomekayo yokubuyisana emva kwezimpi zomhlaba eyavela eNhlanganweni yeZizwe ngesiPhakamiso samaLungelo obuNtu (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 1948) uyibona uLuthuli iyithuba lezizwe emhlabeni wonke ukuthi ziphindele esimweni sokwazisana nokuhloniphana nokubonelelana njengomakhelwane abanesimilo – ubuNtu; waze wathinta encwadini kaIzaya umphrofethi lapho kubekwa khona isithombe salowo nalowo ezihlalelele ngokuthula ethunzini lomkhiwane wakhe nezizwe ziguqula izikhali, zenza amakhuba okulima.

Ababelindele ukuthi uMhlonishwa uLuthuli uzobanika isiqiniseko noma ethembise ukuthi uma kungase kugcine kwenzekile ukuthi umphakathi waseNingizimu-Afrika uphumelele emzabalazweni wawo wokuqeda ukucindezelwa nowokuzitholela inkululeko, uyolibusa ngomusa nangokubonelela izwe, ngaphandle kokubamba amagqubu nokukhokhisa isibhongo kubacindezeli banamuhla, wabalandulela ngesihle okaLuthuli ebabuza ukuthi ngubani ongaba nesiqiniseko ngokuqhubeka kwesimo, ebaxwayisa futhi ukuthi yikho khona lokho okufanele kuqakanyelelwe ngokuthi kukhuthalelwe ukuxhasa umzabalazo namuhla, uphumelele kungakonakali kwedlulele.  Ithemba ayenalo ngelokuthi umphakathi waseNingizimu-Afrika uyolwazisa njalo uzwelo nobanjiswano emzabalazweni, ubemukele ngesasasa ezweni elikhululekileyo abahlobo bawo bonke.

Ikakhulukazi abaseMelika nabaseRashiya (eSoviet Union) kanye nabaseYurophu wabanika inselelo okaLuthuli ngokubaxwayisa ngengozi yokubhubhisa umhlaba equkethwe yilezi zikhali zonyazi (nuclear weapons) asebeviva ngazo, wethula ithemba lokuthi mhlawumbe amazwe aseAfrika angakwazi ukulugijimela phambili, alunqande ulaka lokubhujiswa komhlaba ngokuthi abe ngabahlanganisi phakathi kwabaseMpumalanga ngabaseNtshonalanga, zigotshwe, zingcwatshwe zingasetshenziswanga izikhalikazi lezo.  ‘IThuba leAfrika’ ekuvuseleleni ubuNtu emhlabeni nasekuvuleni amathuba amasha ohwebo nokudlelana ngokubonelelana kwakuyisihloko esisemqoka kule nkulumo eOslo.

(Sisazoqhubeka ekuyibekeni ngamafuphi le nkulumo esiphindile futhi yaba sematheni)

nguBheni kaMkhulunyelwa noMaZungu  wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini

– uDkt uBen Khumalo-Seegelken, www.benkhumalo-seegelken.de  –

 

Kein Kommentar zu diesem Artikel bisher »

Kommentieren

Erlaubtes XHTML: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>