Ulwazi ngokudla nokhula namakhambi

Ulwazi

ngokudla nokhula namakhambi namakha nokokwakha

kwelakithi 

luqoqwa

nguBheni wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini

noMntwana uSteven wakwaZulu eNkandla

belekelelana ikakhulukazi

noThabiso wakwaShezi (ThSh)

– ubanjiswano olusaqhubekayo –

2009

 

   UKUDLA
ummbila(ifutho, ingqatho, imbasha,izinkobe)

(impuphu, umgqakazo, umcaba)

 

 

 poone, chibahwe (Suthu); lesela (Pedi); mavhele (Venda); godi (Shona); mielies (Bhunu).  Ummbila is said to have been introduced to Africa by early explorers and traders and it has been in cultivation in southern Africa perhaps since 1500 AD. The plant originated in Central America, but the exact relationship between the cultivated crop and putative ancestral species is not clear.   … Ummbila is less drought resistant than uphoko and amabele but under favourable conditions will produce much larger crops. It is not prone to bird damage, so that harvesting can be done at any time, once the crop is ripe. Yields of eight tons or more per hectare can be expected under optimum conditions of moisture and nutrition.“Ummbila is for food, amabele is for beer”. The grains are pounded or ground and then cooked or boiled. It is used for porridge or for numerous other dishes. For human use in South Africa ummbila omhlope (white maize) is far more popular than isangalane (yellow maize). Unripe cobs are delicious when boiled or roasted and are commonly sold along roadsides in both green (fresh) or roasted form. Ummbila is similar to other cereals in energy value, but is somewhat less nutritious because of lower levels of essential animo acids, particularly lysine and tryptophane.   PEOPLE’S PLANTS (16) 
amabele  amazimba (Xhosa); mabele (Suthu, Pedi, Ndebele) graansorghum (Bhunu).Amabele are an indigenous staple food and source of beer that has been cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa for at least 3 000 years. The greatest variety of amabele types is found in north-eastern Africa and the crop was perhaps originally developed in Ethiopia. …. The maid advantage of amabele is its ability to produce at least some grain, even under drought conditions, when an ummbila    Grain is traditionally stored in the head and only pounded, round and boiler when needed. In addition to be beer brewing, it may be used for unleavened or leavened bread, gruel, porridge or boiler whole grain. Ground malted grain is popular for porridge, and is well known in southern Africa as “malted mabele” or “maltebele”. Malted amabele is used commercially to brew `sorghum beer´, a popular consumer product. However, the traditiona methods of beer brewing (malting and fermentino) are still widely practised especially in rural areas. PEOPLE’S   PLANTS (14)
uphoko   majolothi (Ndebele); mufhoho (Venda); mpogo (Pedi); osgras (Bhunu):  Uphoko is harvested by hand, using a knife, and it is stored in the head until needed for porridge or beer. The heads are then threshed and winnowed, and the grains ground between stones or germinated to make sweet malt. The flour may be baked or cooked with other ingredients. Uphoko is generally produced for own consumption. … In southern Africa, uphoko is particularly popular (and more so in the past) as a source of malt for beer brewing, the popularity being ascribed to the sweetness of the malt. It is not a major food source except in Zambia and Malawi. PEOPLE’S   PLANTS (10)
 unyawothi, unyawoti, unyaluthi  inyuoti (Ndebele); mhuga, mhungu (Shangane); leotsa (Pedi); babala, manna (Bhunu).
imfe ntsho (Pedi), nnkhwe (Venda)
ithanga/iphuzi   lerotse (Pedi); fhuri (Venda), Pumpkin(English) Lolu uhlobo lwesidlo oluvela emifinweni okuthiwa yizimpuzi. Linambitheka sashukela kanti ungenza ngalo isijingi noma ulupheke ulenze izingcezu.ThSh
 ibhece  Mokopu (Pedi),Cucumber (English) Lolu hlobo lwesidlo luthi alufane nethanga/iphuzi kodwa lona luluhlaza ngokombala. Nalo luyasenza isijingi kanti futhi uyakwazi ukunonga ngalo imifino yezimpuzi uma liselincane lingakakhuli, liseyiklumela.  ThSh
 iselwa
ikhabe  legapu (Pedi); habu (Venda),Watermelon(English) Ngokombala liyafama nebhece ngaphandle into nje libomvu ngaphakathi kanti futhi aliphekwa lidliwa linjalo. Ubumnandi balo behla es’phundu.ThSh
 usususu
izambane   ditapole (Pedi); madabula (Venda), potato(English) Olunye uhlobo lwezidlo engizifelayo ngalo, intandokazi kimi. Izambane likhulela ngaphansi komhlabathi kanti futhi liyizimpande zesihlahla salo, liyimbulungu lithi alibe nsundu ngokombala.ThSh
ubhatata   potata (Pedi); murambo (Venda),sweet-potato(English) Ubhatata ufana ncamashi nezambane into nje wona unoshukela, angeke usinike esingaboni.Kodwa kumele ube namanzi eceleni kwazise phela awehli kalula emphinjeni kodwa usutha njengentandane.
amadumbe  Amadumbe nawo athi awafane namazambane nobhatata into nje wona afuna uwagcobise kancane ngosawoti uzokwazi ukuwathokozela.ThSh
imbumba  Lolu uhlobo lwezindumba olungalokothwa nakancane izangoma ngoba ziyaphupha zingaphinde zikwazi ukubhula noma zishaye umhlahlo. Zimnandi kodwa zibhodlisana ngokhalo 
umanqante  
 izindlubu  Uhlobo lukabhontshisi oluthi alufane namantongomane. Zimnandi uma zixutshwe nezinkobe. Azitshalwa uma isifo singakagezwa phakathi komuzi. 
uchokwane  Uhlobo lukabontshisi olumhlophe qwa kodwa izinhlamvu zakhona zincane. Utshalwa ngaboNhlolanja umbila usuzovuthwa. 
ubhomubhomu  Nawo uhlobo lukabhontshisi olumhlophe kodwa izinhlamvu zalo zithi azilingane nesithupha somuntu. Nawo ubhodlisana ngokhalo uma umuntu ewudlile. 
umzumbe  Lolu uhlobo lukabhontshi (brown beans ngesiLungu).
amakhowe  Aqhuma phansi ngesikhathi sehlobo lapho izulu liduma liqeqebula. Amnandi ungathi inyama. Indawo lapho eqhitshulwa khona kuthiwa isikhowe. Siyahlonishwa isikhowe i.e. asishiphelwa iskhowe. Uma uke washipha awaphinde aqhibuke amakhowa! 
 AMAKHAMBI  NAMAKHA  NOKHULA  
 imbuya 

 

 Imbuya uhlobo lwemifino olumila ngesikhathi sasehlobo. Lutholakatha kunoma iyiphi indawo evundiwe.
 ubukhwebezane   lantana rugosa (Lathini)  Uhlobo lwesithelo sasendle ebesiludla ngesikhathi sisekwaluseni. Ubumnandi babo yibo phela lobu obabambezela unwabu ngenkathi luthunywe nentulo (uma ngabe usawukhumbula lowo mzekeliso).   (B 209)

 

 ilala   hyphaene coriacea (Latini) Amaqabunga asemancane adliwa njengemfino, ingaphandle lenhlamvu liyahlafunwe, likhiphe amanzi amnandi. Iwayini nobili olukhanywé esitshalweni selala kunambitheka njengobisi lukakhukhunathi.   (B 209)
 isundu   phoenix reclinata (Lathini). Umthumbu ophuma esitshalweni uyaphuzwa, kanti isithelo esithambile siyadliwa. (B 210)
 usondelangange   scucia myrtina (Lathini). Isithelo siyadliwa.   (B 210)
 umdoni   syzygium cordatum (Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa futhi ziyavutshelwa zibe wutshwala obudakanayo. (B 210)
 umduze  crinum macowanii/crassulaceae (Lathini)Yintelezi enhle kabi. 
 impepho  helichrysum odoratissimum/asteraceae (Lathini); kooigoed (Bhunu) .Insense(English) Yikhambi elishunqiswa emsamo uma ukhuluma nabaphansi kanti futhi uyaphalaza ufuthe ngalo uma unomkhuhlane.ThSh
unukani  ocotea bullata/lauraceae (Lathini); stinkhout (Bhunu). Ikhubalo elihle kabi leli. Uma kukhona okugqabele, sivele sife isigqabo sakhe.
ugwayi  motsoko (Pedi); nicotina tabacum/solanaceae (Lathini); tabak (Bhunu).
insangu lebake (Pedi); leonotis leonurus/lamiaceae (Lathini); nenax microphylla/rubiaceae (Lathini); wilde dagga, dagga (Bhunu).Iyasivula isifuba esicinene uma umuntu ephalaza ngayo (eyiphekile)
umhlonyane  artemisia afra/asteraceae (Latini); wildeals, als, alsem (Bhunu).
inkomfe 

 

hypoxis hemerocallidea/hypoxidaceae (Lathini); african potato (Ngisi).
ikhiwane  ficus(Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa (B 209)
umvuthwamini  carissa macropcarpa (Latini);Izithelo ziyadliwa. (B 208)
umvithi  boscia albitrunce (Latini); Izingxabo ziyosiwa futhi ziyagaywa zisetshenziswe esikhundleni sekhofi, amanzi aphuma lapho kubiliswa ayaphuzwa; izingxabo kanye nezithelo ziyadliwa. (B 208)

Isihlahla esingalokothwa umphezulu. Uma izulu selikumise kabi ungesabi ukuzifihla phansi kwalesisihlahla. 

umunga  acacia karroo (Lathini).Inhlaka iyadliwa, imbewu isetshenziswa njengekhofi. (B 208)
inkalane  aloe candelabrum (Lathini)Amanzi amuncwa ezimbalini. (B 208)

Izimbali zakhona kuthiwa uvovo. Izinyosi kanye nezinyoni ziyazitika ngovovo. Inhle futhi inkalane ekubiyeleni umuzi.

 

inhlaba  aloe marlothii (Lathini) Amanzi amuncwa ezimbalini. (B 208)

Izimbali zakhona kuthiwa uvovo. Izinyosi kanye nezinyoni ziyazitika ngovovo. Kanti izimbali lezi ziphinde zibe izimboma (isinsunswana abafana abashayana ngazo ekwaluseni). Kuyo inhlaba kuphinde kutholakale ibhudle eliyaye lifakwe emfuleni uma kufunwa umuntu owemuke namanzi. Livamise ukufika lime nse lapho ezike khona uma inyongo ingakaqhumi. Ugwayi womdloti uba mnandi uma uxutshwe nomlotha wenhlaba esiyomile. Emnandi kakhulu egwayini yile enameva amaning.

Inhlaba kuyachathwa futhi ngayo ikakhulukazi ngenyanga kaNhlaba… kuyaye kuthiwe abantu baphethwe umkhuhlane kavovo.

amathungulu  carissa macrocarpa (Lathini) Izithelo ziyadliwa. (B 208)
umsenge  (I)  cussonia panicolata (Lathini). Izingxabo ziyahlutshwa bese zidliwa ziluhlaza, kanti nezithelo ziyadliwa. (B 208)
umsenge (II)  cussonia spicata (Lathini). Izingxabo ezingaphansi (hhayi ezingaphezulu) zidliwa ziluhlaza noma zihlafunwe njengomoba.     (B 208)
umsenge muhle ngokub anamabunga okuphekwa ngawo utshwala. Izindukwana zakhona zazisethsenziswa ekuphehleni igazi elibi ebantwaneni bamantombazana (kuthiwa kukhishwa impene).
umvusankunzi  carissa bispinosa (Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa. (B 208)

Amaxolo omvusankunzi uma esegayiwe ayasiza kakhulu ekuvuseleleni labo asebephelelwe ugqozi lokweqa iziko. 

umnqandane  diospyros lycioides (Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa (B 208)

Izinduku zakhona zisetshensizwa njengabafana bezulu. 

umnyamathi  ekebergia capensis (Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa (B 208)
umlahlankosi  ziziphus mucronata (Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa. (B 211)

Umlahlankosi uphinde ubizwe ngokuthi umphafa. Usebenza kakhulu uma kulandwa umuntu owashonela kude nekhaya. Incekwa iyaye ibekwe kulo ihlahla lomlahlankosi. 

amas’ethole  mimusops africana (Lathini). Izithelo ziyadliwa. (B 210)
 NOKOKWAKHA 
ikhwani   Ikhwani litholakala emaxhaphozini. Lithi alifane nelala kodwa lona lithambile. Kwakhiwa ngalo amacansi okuhlala emaxhibeni. Intombi ayabi ngecansi lekhwani. Kuyihlazo elikhulu! 
incema  juncus kraussii/juncaceae (Lathini); soutmoerasbiesie (Bhunu). Incema nayo itholakala emaxhaphozini. Inhle ngoba ihlala iluhlaza. Kwakhiwa ngayo amavovo/ amahluzo, izicephu kanye nezikhetho.
umtshiki 
inqonqodwane 
umbukubuku (wamacansi) 
umthwentwe 
uqunga   Lolu uhlobo lotshani oluvamise ukusetshenziswa uma kufulelwa. Abafulelayo bavamise ukuqala ngalo ngaphansi ngaphambi kokuba bafake umwamba (uhlobo lotshani).
isiqunga  Isiqunga siyafana noqunga kodwa sona sifushanyana kanti futhi sona singumuthi. Sisebenziswa kakhulu abantu abadla imithi enzima- uma ezohlaba inkomo uqala ngokusiququda esihlanganise notshani. Kanti futhi siyasebenza njengekhubalo uma sihlanganiswe nomlulama. 
umhlanga phragmites australis/poaceae (Lathini); fluitjiesries (Bhunu) ; common reed (Ngisi). Izihlenge zivamise ukwakhiwa ngomhlanga.
umthala
UKUDLA  NEZITHELO 
intshungu Lolu uhlobo lwemifino olobabayo. Uma ulupheka kuyaye kube kuhle uluxube neminye imifino. Imifini ibamnandi uma ixitshwe naloluhlobo lwemifino.
icena Icena lithi alifane nenkalane, kodwa lona lidle ngokuba lide lie yisixhekana. Nalo njengenkalane liphuzizwa izinkukhu uma zinophenyane noma umkhuhlane.
isiphololwane Lolu uhlobo lwemifino olungandile kanti lumnandi. Lunameva. Uma ulukha noma ulupheka kufanele uqaphele ukuthi ameva uyawasusa. Lutholakala ezindaweni ezithi azibe izinkangala.
amabhelebhele Amabhelebhele ayimdunjana eluhlaza ekhala ubisi uma uyiluma. Iyababa lokhu okufana nokweklabeklabe. Avula inhliziyo. Athandwa kakhulu abantu abadala.

 

MASIFUNDISANE NAZI  IZINCWADI  NATHI  ESETHEKELA  KUZO:

      – People’s Plants. A Guide to Useful Plants of Southern Africa.

Ben-Erik van Wyk .  Nigel Gericke. 2000 . Pretoria . ISBN 1-875093-19-2 . 351 pages

       – Buyisela Imvelo Engadini. nguCharles noJulia Botha (2003). Ikhishwe yisiFunda sakwaZulu-Natali se-Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (Wessa) eThekwini. ISBN 1-874975-08-6 (amakhasi: 244)

– ubanjiswano olusaqhubekayo –

IMIBUZO NEMIBONO:

khumalo-seegelken@t-online.de

 

 

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