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 Kwakungonjani umuntu owayaziwa ngokuthi uyikholwa? [1]

Kwakuthiwa umuntu „ukholiwe“ noma „usephendukile“ – „usephucukile“ – uma esegciné evumile ukulandela imfundiso nenqubo eyafika nabamhlophe bevela eYurophu naseMelika bethi bayithatha encwadini, „ibhaybheli“, – inqubo yokudumisa „uMdali“, „iNkosi yamakhosi“ – `uNkulunkulu´, bethi yinkolo „yobuKhristu“/“yobuKhrestu“, eyayisuké empilweni nasenkolweni yamaJuda, ikhuthaza ukuthi kwehlukanwe neziphambeko (`izono´), kuhanjwe ezinyathelweni zikaJesu waseNazaletha kwelamaJuda, „indodana kaNkulunkulu“.

NgesiZulu „ukukholwa“  kusho ukweneliseka emva kokucima ukoma; „ukuphucuka“ kusho ukucwecweka kongwengwezi njengokugcina kuhwayeké isikhumba esigqwalile, kwavela esikhanyakhanyayo.

Ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sombuso wenkosi uMpande kaSenzangakhona (1840-1872) kwaya ngokwejwayeleka kwelakithi kwaZulu ukuhlangana nasebaziwa ngokuthi sebabangamakholwa – ngenhla nangezansi koThukela.  Abokuqala babephenduké ngezikhathi zombuso wenkosi uDingane kaSenzangakhona (1828-1840).

Babebonakala ngezembatho nangenqubo yabo:  Babengasabhinci, sebegqoka izimpahla zendwangu njengabamhlophe.  Abanumzane sebathukulula izicoco nabafazi bageza izinhloko, babeka phansi izidwaba; yakhunyulwa imvunulo, kwembathwa `izingubo´ (amalokwe namabhulukwe namabhantshi namajazi nezigqoko nezicathulo); amakhambi okwakwelashwa ngawo sebefundiswé ukuwakhesa nezinyanga nezangoma bezigciwaza njengokwemfundiso yabeNtumo.  Ongayilandeli le ndlela yabo – osazibhincelayo-nje – amakholwa ayejwayele ukumbukela phansi, ambize ngokuthi uyiqaba.

Owayebaqoqa azobafundela abachazele ngezimiso zalolu kholo lobuKhristu okukhulunywa ngabo, owayebafundisa nezingoma ezihlatshelelwayo ukumkhonza nokumdumisa “uMdali” okuhlangenwe ngaye, kwakukade kungoweNtumo (mission) oqhamuka phesheya, ohlala ephelekezelwa ngabomdabu ababemkhombisa indlela, bemkhulekela emizini afisa ukuya kuyo, bemhumushela, bemelekelela ngezindela eziningi.  Wayaziwa ngokuthi ungumfundisi, inkulumo yakhe achaza kuyo abekade ebafundela khona ebhaybhelini laba abamlalele, yayibizwa ngokuthi yintshumayelo.  Izifiso nezicelo namathemba ethulwa koKhonzwayo ekuqaleni nasekuphethweni komhlangano – kwenkonzo -, kwakuthiwa umthandazo, umkhuleko. Bazazi ngokuthi bayibandla laba abahlangana kanje; bazama ukusondelana, bahloniphane, bazisane njengezelamani (brothers and sisters) – “abazalwane”.

Lo mfundisi-ke ubemnika uphawu lokwemukelwa nokwemukeleka ebandleni lowo osezigcwalisile izidingo abekelwe zona ngokwenqubo yalelo bandla – ambhabhadise/ambabathise ngokwenqubo yasebhaybhelini.  Obhabhadiswayo wethiwa ibizo elisha, lobukholwa (Christian name): ElikaMsongelwa nelikaNdodenjani nelikaHleziphi nelikaHluphekile alemukeleki –  sebengoJohn, David, Elizabeth, Rosemary abazalwane njengabefundisi babo ngokwenqubo yaseYurophu naseMelika.

Ngenxa yokuzikhipha kwabakubo nokuziqhelisa ezihlotsheni nasemphakathini nokugxeka amasiko emva kokuphenduka, ayevamé ukwexwaywa amakholwa – „amambuka, ahlubuka abakubo“ – njengezincelebana ezilahlekelwe „ubuntu“ nokwazisana, abakubo ababezinyeza ngazo.

Ezikhathini zokuhlwithwa komhlaba ikakhulukazi emva kwempi yaseNcome (Blood River) (1838) yayivamé ukusinda nokho eminye imizi ngokubalekela iyozikhonzela ezindawaneni eyayingakhusela khona, iphile ngenqubo yabaphathi, inqubo yobukholwa.  Lezo zindawo zazibizwa ngokuthi yizabelo zabeNtumo (mission reserves), zivikavikelekile olakeni lwababusi bangalezo zikhathi – amaBhunu namaNgisi. Omunye wayekhonzé lapha, omunye ekhonzé laphaya: kwabaseMelika (American Board Mission), kwabaseNoki (Norwegian Mission Society), eJalimane (Hermannsburg, Berlin), eNgilande (Anglican, Weslyan/Methodist, … … ) eSwidi; omunye ukhonzé eMaRomeni, omunye ukhonzé eSheshi noma eLuthela – okungathi abahoshelani kahle hle!

Kuyafundwa, kuyasetshenzwa, kuyadunyiswa: kunezikole kunezingadi namasimu, kunezindlu okuhlanganyelwa kuzo kuyodunyiswa „uNkulunkulu“ (= „iNkosi yamakhosi“). Indlu yesiZulu, iqhugwana, `uguqa-sithandaze´, ayisejwayelekile; sekuhlalwa ezakhiweni ezifuzé ezabamhlophe – `olondo´  `namahhisi´ (rondavel/huisie).  Akusalotsholiswana; ukuganiselana `namaqaba´ akwemukelisiseki.

Ngezikhathi zokudlongobala kolaka lombuso wamaNgisi kwelakithi owawusugxilé phakathi koKhahlamba noThukela, „eNatali“ (1843-1910), babephumelela abanye abangayitholi indawo yokufihla ikhanda ezindawaneni zabeNtumo (mission stations) ukuhlanganiselana, bathenge indawo kwabombuso wamaNgisi, behlukaniselane iziza, bazakhele – njengaseEdendale ngaseMgungundlovu naseMatiwane’s Kop kwelaseMnambithi, baziphilele ngokwenqubo entsha yobukholwa.  Babezibiza futhi ngokuthi bangoNonhlevu.

Ukuphatha ibandla, ukuphemba nokuqhuba izinhlangano zabakholwayo kanye nokufundisa ezikolweni kuhambé kwahamba kwedlulela nasezandleni zabomdabu.  Ukushumayela nokubhabhadisa nokungcwaba ngenqubo yenkolo yobuKhristu kuhambé kwahamba kwenziwa nangabomdabu asebenikwé lelo gunya ngokuqeqeshwa, `bagcotshwe´, babekwe esikhundleni sobufundisi (ebandleni laseMaRomeni = `abaphristi´).  Izinhlangano zokuzakha nokuvuselelana nokuzithuthukisa (kwelaseWeseli = uNzondelelo) zanda.

Ikholwa-ke belaziwa njengomuntu oyikhuthelele imihlangano yebandla lakubo, ikakhulukazi inkonzo evamé ukuba ngeSonto ekuseni lapho kulalelwa khona intshumayelo ngomusho othile othathwé ebhaybhelini, kukhonzwe, kudunyiswe `oPhezulu´ ngokuhlabelela nangomkhuleko (umthandazo), kugcwaliswe ubudlelwano ngokuhlanganyela esithebeni („isidlo seNkosi“), kuciciyelelwe abahluphekayo ngokuqoqa umnikelo (inkongozelo) nokuvumelana ngokubahambela emakhaya ngasezibhedlela …; –  ikholwa belaziwa njengomumuntu owemukelekile kwakhonza nabo, onesimilo nokuzithoba nenhlonipho nokwethembeka noziphatha ngokubonelela ababuthaka nokungahlambalazi nokungedeleli: isibonelo!

Omunye wamakholwa aziwa kakhulu kwelakithi nguAlbert Luthuli (1898-1967).

Muva-nje iningi lamabandla amakholwa seliphenjwa liholwe ngabomdabu asebahlubuka emabandleni amaSonto eNtumo yaphesheya, baziqalela eyabo inkonzo yobuKhristu ehamba ngokwesintu (African Independent Churches) – iZayoni, abakwaShembe nabanye.

Amakholwa avamé ukwazelwa ukushisekelela ukwazisana nenhlalakahle emphakathini nokungahambisani nobandlululo nobudlova. Ezikhathini zemibuso ecindezelayo, amakholwa avamile ukuba ngabakhulumeli nabalweli bomphakathi nabalamuli nabahlanganisi emizamweni yokubuyisana.

Ngezikhathi zokudlongobala kolaka lombuso wamaNgisi kwelakithi owawusugxilé phakathi koKhahlamba noThukela, „eNatali“ (1843-1910) naseminyakeni elandela leyo (1910-1948) bebephumelela abathile ukuxegiselwa amajokwe, bangaphoqelelwa emithethweni yobandlululo nobudlova eyayisiyethweswé umphakathi – „exempted natives“ (amazemtiti).

Umqoqi walolu lwazi nale mibono:

nguBheni kaMkhulunyelwa noMaZungu wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini ekwaMachanca eJalimane [Dr Ben Khumalo-Seegelken]

 

[1]Lapha sicobelelana ulwazi ngezomphakathi nezenhlaliswano kusukela ezikhathini zokufika kwabamhlophe kwelakithi.  Lolu ubanjiswano  olusaqhubekayo. Wonke othandayo angalwelula, alujobelele loluhlelo ngokubona.  Thintana nami:  khumalo-seegelken@t-online.de

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